H.R. 3684 – Infrastructure Investment and Jobs Act
Background: The federal government has supported infrastructure across a variety of sectors through a range of programs. The Infrastructure Investment and Jobs Act includes support for roads, bridges, passenger and freight rail, transportation safety, transit, broadband, ports and waterways, airports, drinking water and wastewater, and energy, among other initiatives.
Floor Situation: The Senate is expected to consider the bill this week. Cloture on the motion to proceed to the legislation was invoked on July 28 by a vote of 67 to 32. On August 1, Senators Sinema and Portman introduced a bipartisan substitute amendment that includes the text of the Infrastructure Investment and Jobs Act. The Senate is currently voting on amendments to the bill.
Executive Summary: The legislation reauthorizes, creates, and funds programs to support a range of infrastructure initiatives. Current authorizations for surface transportation programs are set to expire at the end of September. The bill provides approximately $550 billion in new infrastructure spending over five years.
OVERVIEW OF THE ISSUE
Infrastructure is a fundamental component of America’s economy and our ability to move people and goods. America’s transportation systems are comprised of highways, roads, bridges, waterways, ports, and airports. Other infrastructure systems facilitate drinking water and wastewater. Energy infrastructure moves electricity to residential and commercial customers.
While state and local governments account for a majority of public infrastructure spending, the federal government has historically invested in transportation and water infrastructure. According to the Congressional Budget Office, in 2017, the federal government spent approximately $98 billion on transportation and water infrastructure, compared to $342 billion by state and local governments.
The last long-term reauthorization for surface transportation programs was the 2015 Fixing America’s Surface Transportation Act, which expired at the end of fiscal year 2020. In December 2020, Congress passed a one-year extension of the FAST Act as part of annual appropriations legislation – that extension will expire at the end of September.
CONSIDERATIONS ON THE BILL
The bill incorporates the Surface Transportation Reauthorization Act of 2021, which passed the Senate Committee on Environment and Public Works unanimously, and the Surface Transportation Investment Act, passed by the Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation with bipartisan support. It also includes the Senate-passed Drinking Water and Wastewater Infrastructure Act and the Energy Infrastructure Act, which received bipartisan support in the Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources.
NOTABLE BILL PROVISIONS
DIVISION A—SURFACE TRANSPORTATION
Authorizes $303.5 billion from the Highway Trust Fund for roads and bridges over five years. Provides 90% of that amount to state departments of transportation to address their surface transportation needs. Specifically, it authorizes for the Federal-Aid Highway Program from the HTF: $52.4 billion for FY 2022; $53.5 billion for FY 2023; $54.6 billion in FY 2024; $55.7 billion in FY 2025; and $56.8 billion in FY 2026.
Authorizes funding for the Transportation Infrastructure Finance and Innovation program; Nationally Significant Freight and Highway projects; the Tribal Transportation Program; the Federal Lands Transportation Program; the Federal Lands Access Program; and the Territorial and Puerto Rico Highway Program.
Creates a competitive grant program to improve bridges. Authorizes the program at $600 million in FY 2022, $640 million in FY 2023, $650 million in FY 2024, and $700 million in FY 2026 from the HTF. An additional amount is authorized but subject to appropriations.
Creates a competitive grant program to address the surface transportation infrastructure of rural communities. The bill authorizes the program at $300 million in FY 2022, $350 million in FY 2023, $400 million in FY 2024, $450 million in FY 2025, and $500 million in FY 2026 from the HTF.
Codifies One Federal Decision policy, which establishes a two-year goal for completion of environmental reviews for infrastructure projects. Also seeks to ensure environmental review documents remain under 200 pages.
Creates several programs to mitigate transportation emissions and address climate change, including a grant program to support alternative charging and fueling infrastructure, a program to curb truck idling and emissions at ports, a program to minimize transportation emissions, and a program to address traffic congestion.
Creates the Promoting Resilient Operations for Transformative, Efficient, and Cost-saving Transportation program to improve the resiliency of roads and bridges through both formula funding to all states and grants on a competitive basis.
Creates a grant program to aid electric vehicle charging infrastructure. Authorizes funding for the program: $300 million for FY 2022; $400 million for FY 2023; $500 million for FY 2024; $600 million for FY 2025; and $700 million for FY 2026.
DIVISION B—SURFACE TRANSPORTATION INVESTMENT ACT OF 2021
Creates within DOT an Office of Multimodal Freight Infrastructure and Policy charged with overseeing and facilitating freight policy.
Creates a competitive grant program to fund national and regional transportation projects, and authorizes $2 billion annually for the program from FY 2022 to FY 2026. Also creates a competitive grant program to fund local and regional transportation projects, and authorizes $$1.5 billion annually for the program from FY 2022 to FY 2026.
Creates the National Culvert Removal, Replacement, and Restoration program to provide grants on a competitive basis to support culvert infrastructure. Authorizes $800 million annually for the program for FY 2022 through FY 2026.
Creates the Rural and Tribal Assistance pilot program under the Build America Bureau. Permits the secretary of transportation to use funding available to carry out the pilot program, including up to $1.6 million in FY 2022, $1.8 million in FY 2023, $2 million in FY 2024, $2.2 million in FY 2025, and $2.4 million in FY 2026.
Reauthorizes the Railroad Rehabilitation and Improvement Financing program.
Authorizes grants for Amtrak’s Northeast Corridor: $1.5 billion for FY 2022; $1.1 billion for FY 2023; $1.2 billion for FY 2024; $1.3 billion for FY 2025; $1.4 billion for FY 2026. Also authorizes grants for Amtrak’s National Network: $2.3 billion for FY 2022; $$2.2 billion for FY 2023; $2.4 billion for FY 2024; $2.7 billion for FY 2025; and $3 billion for FY 2026.
Authorizes funding for the Federal Railroad Administration, including for safety and operations: $248 million for FY 2022; $254 million for FY 2023; $263 million for Fy2024; $271 million for FY 2025; $279 million for FY 2026. Authorizes funding for FRA’s research and development: $43 million for FY 2022; $44 million for FY 2023; $45 million for FY 2024; $46 million for FY 2025; and $47 million for FY 2026.
Authorizes $1 billion annually for FY 2022 through FY 2026 for Consolidated Rail Infrastructure and Safety Improvement, or CRISI, grants.
Requires the secretary to promulgate safety regulations for high-speed rail. Stipulates that the secretary consult with high-speed rail developers before promulgating such regulations.
Authorizes funding for the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, including to facilitate the safety assistance program: $390.5 million for FY 2022; $398.5 million for FY 2023; $406.5 million for FY 2024; $414.5 million for FY 2025; and $422.5 million for FY 2026.
Requires the secretary within two years to issue a safety standard mandating heavy-duty commercial motor vehicles be equipped with automatic emergency braking systems.
Requires the secretary within one year to promulgate regulations to mandate trailers and semitrailers be outfitted with rear impact guards.
Authorizes funding for the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, including for highway safety programs: $363.4 million for FY 2022; $370.9 million for FY 2023; $378.4 million for FY 2024; $385.9 million for FY 2025; and $393.4 million for FY 2026.
Creates the Safe Streets and Roads for All program to facilitate grants to stem deaths and injuries. Authorizes $200 million annually for the program for FY 2022 through FY 2026.
Requires the secretary to promulgate a rule to mandate new motor vehicles be outfitted with crash avoidance technology, specifically forward collision warning and an automatic emergency braking system. Also requires the secretary within three years to issue a final rule to set safety standards to mandate new motor vehicles be outfitted with technology to address drunk and impaired driving.
Creates a working group comprised of government and industry stakeholders and led by the secretaries of DOT and the Department of Energy to consider and make recommendations regarding the adoption of electric vehicles in the transportation sector.
Authorizes the Interagency Infrastructure Permitting Improvement Center, with the stated purpose of bolstering federal coordination and improving the efficiency of permitting and environmental processes.
Authorizes the Rural Opportunities to Use Transportation for Economic Success, or ROUTES, initiative, which was previously created under the Trump administration. The ROUTES initiative seeks to support the transportation needs of rural communities.
Creates the Advanced Research Projects Agency-Infrastructure, or ARPA-I, program to fund projects and research to improve core infrastructure through technology and innovation.
Authorizes appropriations for hazardous materials safety programs from FY 2022 through FY 2026.
Authorizes funding from the Mass Transit Account in the Highway Trust Fund: $13.3 billion for FY 2022; $13.6 billion for FY 2023; $13.9 billion for FY 2024; $14.2 billion for FY 2025; and $14.6 billion for FY 2026.
Authorizes $3 billion annually for the Federal Transit Administration’s Capital Investment Grants program for FY 2022 through FY 2026.
Directs the secretary of energy to create a program to facilitate aid to states and tribes to reduce the risk of electricity outages through the modernization of infrastructure. Authorizes $5 billion for the program for FY 2022 through FY 2026.
Directs the secretary of energy to create the Program Upgrading Our Electric Grid and Ensuring Reliability and Resiliency to facilitate aid to and boost collaboration with grid owners and operators. Authorizes $1 billion for the program for FY 2022 through FY 2026.
Creates a Transmission Facilitation Program to support the development of transmission infrastructure. Establishes the Transmission Facilitation Fund within the Treasury Department to carry out the program, and permits the secretary of the treasury to loan sums for the program. Authorizes $10 million annually for the program over each of FY 2022 through FY 2026.
Authorizes $3 billion for the Smart Grid Investment Matching Grant Program from FY 2022 through FY 2026.
Creates a Carbon Dioxide Transportation Infrastructure Finance and Innovation, or CIFIA, program to facilitate loans for projects to support carbon capture infrastructure. Authorizes funding for the program: $600 million for each of FY 2022 and FY 2023; $300 million for each of FY 2024, FY 2025, and FY 2026.
Directs the secretary of energy to create a program to evaluate nuclear reactors that are projected to cease operation and allocate credits sufficient to sustain operation. Authorizes $6 billion for the program for FY 2022 through FY 2026.
Requires the secretary of energy report to Congress regarding the number of jobs cut and effect on energy prices stemming from President Biden’s executive order rescinding the presidential permit for the Keystone XL pipeline.
Requires the secretary of energy report to Congress on “the cradle to grave environmental impact of electric vehicles.”
Requires the secretary of energy create a competitive grant program to provide support to states and other eligible entities to put into effect updated building energy codes. Authorizes the program at $225 million from FY 2022 through FY 2026.
Creates a grant program to provide assistance to manufacturers to make updates to improve energy efficiency and cut waste and emissions. Authorizes $400 million from FY 2022 through FY 2026 for such grants.
Creates a grant program to facilitate energy efficiency updates at schools. Authorizes $500 million for the program from FY 2022 through FY 2026.
Creates a pilot program to facilitate grants to address the energy efficiency of nonprofit buildings. Authorizes $50 million for the program from FY 2022 through FY 2026.
Authorizes $3.5 billion for the Weatherization Assistance Program in FY 2022.
Authorizes $550 million for the Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant program in FY 2022.
Directs the secretary of energy to create a program to provide aid to states to address orphaned oil and gas wells on federal lands. Also directs the secretary of energy to create a program to provide similar assistance to tribes. In total, authorizes $4.7 billion to help address orphaned wells.
Creates the Forest Service Legacy Road and Trail Remediation program to update road and trail routes within the National Forest System. Authorizes $250 million for the program for FY 2022 through FY 2026.
Authorizes $3.3 billion for several activities to address and mitigate wildfires in FY 2022.
Authorizes $2.1 billion for several activities to support ecosystem restoration for FY 2022 through FY 2026.
Authorizes $1.1 billion for FY 2022 through FY 2026 to support projects to address storage for water and groundwater.
Authorizes $3.2 billion for the Bureau of Reclamation to execute extraordinary maintenance work.
DIVISION E—DRINKING WATER AND WASTEWATER INFRASTRUCTURE
Authorizes funding for EPA’s technical assistance and grants for emergencies affecting public water systems at $35 million annually for FY 2022 through FY 2026.
Authorizes funding for technical assistance to small public water systems at $15 million annually for FY 2022 through FY 2026.
Authorizes increased funding for the Drinking Water State Revolving Loan Fund: $2.4 billion for FY 2022; $2.75 billion for FY 2023; $3 billion for FY 2024; $3.25 billion for FY 2025 and FY 2026.
Authorizes funding for Assistance for Small and Disadvantaged Communities: $70 million for FY 2022; $80 million for FY 2023; $100 million for FY 2024; $120 million for FY 2025; and $140 million for FY 2026.
Authorizes funding for the Drinking Water System Infrastructure Resilience and Sustainability program at $25 million for FY 2022 through FY 2026. Stipulates a 90% federal cost share for aid to small, rural, and disadvantaged communities.
Requires EPA to carry out a study examining community water needs, including in rural areas, and provide recommendations on how to better provide affordable and safe drinking water and wastewater.
Creates a program to facilitate grants to link households to public water infrastructure. Authorizes the program at $20 million annually from FY 2022 through FY 2026.
The legislation facilitates several initiatives to reduce lead in drinking water infrastructure, including a pilot program to help communities use mapping information. Authorizes $10 million for the program. Also authorizes funding to address lead in school drinking water systems: $30 million for FY 2022; $35 million for FY 2023; $40 million for FY 2024; $45 million for FY 2025; and $50 million for FY 2026.
Authorizes funding under the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, or the Clean Water Act, including for research, investigations, training, and information at $75 million annually for FY 2022 through FY 2026.
Authorizes funding for sewer overflow and stormwater reuse municipal grants at $280 million annually for FY 2022 through FY 2026, placing a particular emphasis on projects in rural communities.
Directs EPA to create a clean water infrastructure resiliency and sustainability program to provide grants aimed at protecting water systems from weather events and cybersecurity risks. Authorizes the program at $25 million annually for FY 2022 through FY 2026.
Directs EPA to create an efficiency grant program for small publicly owned treatment works to support water and energy efficiency in disadvantaged communities, as well as those in rural areas with a population of less than 10,000.
Authorizes funding for the Clean Water State Revolving Loan Funds: $2.4 billion for FY 2022; $2.75 billion for FY 2023; $3 billion for FY 2024; and $3.25 billion for FY 2025 and FY 2026.
Reauthorizes the Innovative Water Infrastructure Workforce Development program at $5 million annually for FY 2022 through FY 2026. Also creates a federal interagency working group to report to Congress on bolstering the water and wastewater utility workforce. The group will be comprised of members from EPA, the Department of Education, the Department of Labor, the Department of Agriculture, the Department of Veterans Affairs, and other appropriate federal agencies.
Directs EPA to create a water data sharing pilot program aimed at ensuring the coordination of data and information regarding water quality and needs between state and local governments. Authorizes the program at $15 million annually for FY 2022 through FY 2026.
Reauthorizes the Water Infrastructure Financing and Innovation Act program at $50 million annually for FY 2022 through FY 2026.
Defines “unserved location” as a location that has no access to broadband or lacks reliable access to broadband with a speed of not less than 25 Mbps for downloads, 3 Mbps for uploads.
Defines “underserved location” as a location that lacks reliable access to broadband with a speed of not less than 100 Mbps for downloads, 20 Mbps for uploads.
Authorizes $42.5 billion to carry out a new grant program administered by the Commerce Department to provide grants to states to expand broadband to unserved and underserved areas and help bridge the digital divide.
Requires the Commerce Department and the Federal Communications Commission to create a public website that allows consumers to determine whether they are eligible for a subsidy or low-cost broadband service.
Requires the FCC to submit a report to Congress on the future of the Universal Service Fund and its role in achieving the goal of universal service for broadband.
Authorizes $60 million for planning grants to states to develop “digital equity plans.”
Authorizes $240 million for state “digital equity capacity” grants in FY 2022; $300 million annually for FY 2023-2026.
Authorizes $250 million annually for FY 2022 to FY 2026 for a digital equity competitive grant program.
Authorizes $1 billion for “middle mile deployment” grants.
Renames the Emergency Broadband Program administered by the FCC the Affordable Connectivity Program, and extends it indefinitely. The program provides subsidies for broadband services to low-income and other qualifying people.
DIVISION G—OTHER AUTHORIZATIONS
Creates within the Treasury Department the Indian Water Rights Settlement Completion Fund. Directs the secretary of the treasury to deposit $2.5 billion into the fund.
Directs the secretaries of the interior, agriculture, and homeland security to create a commission on wildland fires charged with making policy recommendations and informing federal action.
Directs the administrator of EPA to produce best practices for the recycling of batteries, and authorizes $10 million for the effort. Also creates a program within EPA to issue voluntary labeling guidelines to bolster battery recycling, and authorizes $15 million for the program.
Directs the administrator of EPA to create a competitive grant program to bolster recycling. Authorizes $15 million annually for the program for FY 2022 through FY 2026.
Requires federal contracts for the domestic production of personal protective equipment to be at least two years in duration.
Authorizes the secretary of DHS and the national cyber director to declare a “significant cybersecurity incident” and coordinate a federal response.
Establishes a Cyber Response and Recovery Fund to assist federal, state, local, and tribal entities respond to and recover from a declared significant incident. Authorizes $20 million annually for the Fund for FY 2022 to FY 2027.
Establishes a state and local cybersecurity grant program administered by DHS and authorizes $200 million for FY 2022, $400 million for FY 2023, $300 million for FY 2024, and $100 million for FY 2025.
DIVISION H—REVENUE PROVISIONS
Extends Highway Trust Fund, Sport Fish Restoration and Boating Trust Fund, and Leaking Underground Storage Tank Trust Fund expenditure authority through FY 2026.
Extends highway-related revenue collection authority, including federal taxes on gasoline, diesel, and special motor fuels, tires, and heavy trucks and trailers.
Transfers from the Treasury $90 billion to the Highway Account and $28 billion to the Mass Transit Account in the Highway Trust Fund.
Reinstates and doubles the tax rate on certain chemicals or chemical products that are identified in Section 4661(b) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986.
Extends customs user fees through FY 2031.
Adds “qualified broadband projects” and “qualified carbon dioxide capture facilities” as allowable uses for private activity bonds.
Doubles the national aggregate limit on private activity bonds for “qualified highway or surface freight transfer facilities” to $30 billion (from $15 billion).
Excludes from taxable income Contributions in Aid of Construction made by government entities to water and sewer utilities.
Amends the definition of broker in Section 6045 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 so that it includes any person who is responsible for regularly providing any service effectuating transfers of digital assets on behalf of another person. Additionally, the provision clarifies that the definition of specified security includes a digital asset, which is defined as any digital representation of value that is recorded on a cryptographically secured distributed ledger or any similar technology. Requires a broker to file a return with the IRS for a calendar year with respect to any transfer of a digital asset from an account maintained by the broker to an account that is not maintained by, or an address not associated with, a person that the broker knows or has reason to know is also a broker. Provides that digital assets will be treated as cash solely for purposes of section 6050I, which requires any person engaged in a trade or business to report any transaction in which the person receives more than $10,000 in cash. Applies to returns required to be filed, and statements required to be furnished, after December 31, 2023.
Moves up the termination date for the COVID-19 Employee Retention Credit by one quarter to October 1, 2021.
Requires manufacturers of certain Medicare Part B, physician administered, single-dose or single use packaged drugs to provide refunds to Medicare for the unused amounts of the drugs.
Delays, until January 2026, the Medicare Part D drug rebate rule, which would eliminate the anti-kickback safe harbor protection for prescription drug rebates.
DIVISION I—OTHER MATTERS
Extends the mandatory sequester under the Budget Control Act of 2011 through 2031.
Directs the secretary of energy to draw down and sell 87,600,000 barrels of crude oil from the Strategic Petroleum Reserve from FY 2028 through FY 2031.
Claims that in July, CBO reduced its cost estimate for the expanded unemployment insurance programs in the American Rescue Plan Act of 2021, because many states decided to end one or more of the programs before they expire in September and the improved economy means fewer people will receive benefits. The bill claims that it is estimated that there are about $53 billion in savings from the money originally projected to be spent on UI programs that the states have not used.
Extends, until 2032, the guarantee fees charged by government-sponsored enterprises Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac.
Directs the FCC, in consultation with the Commerce Department, to conduct an auction of spectrum the federal government has determined could be made available on a shared basis between federal and non-federal use.
Rescinds $41.8 billion in unobligated COVID-19 relief funds.
$2.8 billion for the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.
$11.6 billion for U.S. Army Corps of Engineers construction, with which the secretary of army is permitted to initiate new construction starts.
$2 billion for the Rural Utilities Service distance learning, telemedicine, and broadband program.
$42.5 billion for the Broadband Equity, Access, and Deployment Program.
$2 billion to the Broadband Connectivity Fund for grants under the Tribal Broadband Connectivity Program.
$2.8 billion for Digital Equity.
$1 billion for middle mile deployment.
$5 billion for the FEMA flood mitigation and pre-disaster mitigation programs.
$450 million for recycling, consumer materials management, and pollution prevention grants at the EPA.
$618 million for the Department of Agriculture NRCS Watershed program.
$75 million for WIFIA program to improve dams.
$8.3 billion for the Bureau of Reclamation’s water and related resources projects.
$16.2 billion for energy efficiency and renewable energy within DOE.
$8.1 billion for ELECTRICITY within DOE.
$6 billion for nuclear energy to carry out activities within the Civil Nuclear Credit Program.
$7.4 billion for fossil energy and carbon management within DOE.
$2.1 billion for Carbon Dioxide Transportation Infrastructure Finance and Innovation Program Account, as created under the bill, within DOE.
$21.4 billion for Office of Clean Energy Demonstrations within DOE.
$1.3 billion for the Appalachian Development Highway System.
$11.2 billion for Abandoned Mine Reclamation Fund.
$1.4 billion for wildland fire management within the Department of the Interior.
$4.6 billion for an Energy Community Revitalization program within DOI to address orphaned oil and gas wells.
$696 million for Forest Service wildland fire management.
$2.1 billion for National Forest System hazardous fuels reduction.
$1.5 billion for state and private forestry funds for wildfire mitigation efforts.
$55.4 billion for EPA state and tribal assistance grants, including to support clean water state revolving funds and drinking water state revolving funds.
Authorizes an additional $13.8 billion for Clean Water State Revolving Fund and Drinking Water State Revolving fund from FY 2022 through FY 2026.
$3.5 billion for Indian health facilities within the Department of Health and Human Services.
$3.4 billion for ecosystem restoration programs at the EPA, FWS, and NOAA.
$100 million for the Cyber Response and Recovery Fund through the Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency.
$1 billion for a state, tribal, and territorial grant program administered by FEMA.
$157.5 million for the Department of Homeland Security’s Science and Technology Directorate for Research and Development.
$35 million for Risk Sector Management through the Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency.
$21 million for the Office of the National Cyber Director. Appropriates $5 billion for the EPA’s Superfund and Brownfields Program.
$3.4 billion to the General Services Administration for construction, acquisition, repairs, and alterations of border stations and land ports of entry.
$15 billion to the Drinking Water State Revolving Fund program to replace lead service lines, with 49% of the funding distributed by the states as forgivable loans or grants.
$10 billion to address per- and polyflouroalkyl substances.
$14.2 billion for the renamed broadband affordability program, the “Affordable Connectivity fund.”
$12.5 billion for National Infrastructure Investments grants, previously known as TIGER and BUILD grants.
$5 billion for Facilities and Equipment within FAA.
$15 billion for Airport Infrastructure Grants.
$5 billion for an Airport Terminal Program to update terminal infrastructure.
$27.5 billion to the Federal Highway Administration for the improvement of bridges.
$5 billion to for a National Electric Vehicle Formula Program to support necessary infrastructure for electric vehicles.
$3.2 billion for INFRA grants.
$9.2 billion to for the Bridge Investment Program.
$5 billion for the Federal Railroad Administration’s Consolidated Rail Infrastructure and Safety Improvements grant program.
$6 billion for Amtrak’s Northeast Corridor and $16 billion for Amtrak’s National Network.
$36 billion for Federal-State Partnership for Intercity Passenger Rail Grants.
$8 billion for the Federal Transit Administration’s Capital Investment Grants.
$5.3 billion for the FTA’s Low or No Emission grant program.
$4.8 billion for the FTA’s State of Good Repair grant program.
$2.2 billion for the Aging Infrastructure Account.
$500 million for the Western Area Power Administration.
$100 million for the Drought Contingency Plan.
$1 million for the Soil and Snowpack Monitoring Pilot Program.
On August 7, the administration released a Statement of Administration Policy supporting passage of the Sinema-Portman substitute amendment to H.R.3684.
The Congressional Budget Office estimates that over the 2021-2031 period, enacting Senate Amendment 2137 to H.R. 3684 would decrease direct spending by $110 billion, increase revenues by $50 billion, and increase discretionary spending by $415 billion. On net, the legislation would add $256 billion to projected deficits over that period.
The bill’s lead sponsors have said that CBO is restricted in measures it can include in formal scoring, and therefore, not all savings or revenue measures included in the legislation are captured in the formal score. Regarding measures that are not recognized, the sponsors received savings estimates from CBO.
Further amendments are expected.